Note: This page is updated occasionally, for up to the minute info on our publications please also check our Google Scholar and Research Gate pages.

Anita Antoninka on ResearchGate.
Matthew Bowker on Google Scholar citations.
Matthew Bowker on ResearchGate.
Kyle Doherty on ResearchGate.
Chris Ives on ResearchGate.
Mike Remke on ResearchGate.
Kristina Young on ResearchGate.

2015, in press, or accepted:

Antoninka A.J., Ritchie, M.E., Johnson, N.C. 2015. The hidden Serengeti - Mycorrhizal fund respond to environmental gradients. Pedobiologia doi:10.1016/j.pedobi.2015.08.001.

Smith D., Fettig S.M., Bowker M.A. 201x. Elevated elk numbers prevent positive effects of fire on aspen (Populus tremuloides) recruitment. Forest Ecology and Management accepted.

Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., Büdel, B., Sannier, C., Pietrasiak, N., Eldridge, D.J., Rivera-Aguilar V. 201x. Controls on distribution patterns of biological soil crusts at micro- to global scales. Pages x- x In: Weber, B., Büdel, B., Belnap, J. (Eds.) Biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in drylands. Ecological Studies Series. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. accepted.

Antoninka, A.J., Bowker, M.A., Reed, S.C., Doherty, K.D. 2015. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function. Restoration Ecology doi:10.1111/rec12311.

Ochoa-Hueso R, Delgado-Baquerizo M, Gallardo A., Bowker M.A., Maestre F.T. 2015. Climatic conditions, soil fertility and atmosphericnitrogen deposition largely determine the structure and functioning ofmicrobial communities in biocrust-dominated Mediterranean drylands. Plant and Soil doi:10.1007/s11104-015-2695-y.

Delgado-Baquerizo M., Maestre F.T., Eldridge D.J., Bowker M.A., Ochoa V., Val J., Singh B.K. 2015. Biocrust-forming mosses mitigate the negative impacts of increasing aridity on ecosystemmultifunctionality in drylands. New Phytologist doi:10.1111/nph.13688. (See also Research Highlight in Nature Plants Article Number 15177-15181).

Chiquoine L.P., Abella S.R., Bowker M.A. 201x. Rapid rehabilitation of ecosystem function in highly disturbed Mojave Desert ecosystems: a role for biological crusts. Ecological Applications in press.

Delgado-Baquerizo, M., Maestre,, F.T., Gallardo, A., Bowker M.A., et al. (over 50 authors) 201x. Global change drivers promote the dominance of inorganic N forms in global drylands. Global Ecology and Biogeography in press.

Soliveres S., Maestre F.T., Ulrich W., Manning P., Boch S., Bowker M.A., et al. (over 15 authors). 2015. Intransitive competition iswidespread in plant communities and maintains their species richness. Ecology Letters 18:790-798.

Eisenhauer N., Bowker, M.A., Grace, J.B., Powell, J.R. 2015. From patterns to causal understanding: Structural Equation Modelling(SEM) in soil ecology. Pedobiologia 58:65-72.

Doherty, K.D., Antoninka A.J., Bowker, M.A., Velasco Ayuso, S., Johnson, N.C. 2015. A novel approach to cultivate biocrusts for restoration and experimentation. Ecological Restoration 33: 13-16.


Johnson, N.C., Wilson, G., Miller, M.R., Bowker, M.A. 2014. Mycorrhizal phenotypes and the law of the mínimum. New Phytologist 205: 1473-1484.

Soliveres, S., Maestre, F.T., Eldridge, D.J., Delgado-Baquerizo, M., Quero, J.L., Bowker, M.A., Gallardo, A. 2014. Plant diversity and ecosystem multifunctionality peak at intermediate levels of woody cover in global drylands. Global Ecology & Biogeography 23:1408-1416.

Castillo-Monroy, A.P., Bowker, M.A., García-Palacios, P., Maestre, F.T. 2014. Aspects of lichen biodiversity and aggregation interact to influence subsurface microbial function. Plant and Soil 386:303-316.

Ulrich, W., Soliveres, S., Maestre, F.T., Gotelli N.J., Quero J.L., Delgado-Bacquerizo M., Bowker, M.A., et al. (over 50 authors). 2014. Climate and soil attributes determine plant species turnover in globaldrylands. Journal of Biogeography doi:10.1111/jbl.12377

Soliveres, S. Maestre, F.T., Bowker, M.A. et al. 2014. Functional traits determine plant co-occurrence more than environment orevolutionary relatedness in global drylands. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 16: 164-173.

Ochoa-Hueso R., Arronioz-Crespo M., Bowker M.A., Maestre F.T., Perez-Corona M.E., Theobald M.R., Vivanco M.G., Manrique E. 2014. Biogeochemical indicators of elevated nitrogen deposition in semiaridMediterranean ecosystems. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 186:5831-5842.

Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Eldridge, D.J., Belnap, J., Castillo-Monroy, A.P., Escolar, C., Soliveres, S. 2014. Biological soil crusts(biocrusts) as a model system in community, landscape, and ecosystem ecology. Biodiversity and Conservation 23: 1619-1637.

Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E, Garman, S.L, Belote, T. 2014. Applying Threshold Concepts to Conservation Management of Dryland Ecosystems:Case Studies on the Colorado Plateau. Pages 101-130  In: Guntenspergen, G., (Ed.) Application of threshold concepts in natural resource decision making. Springer, Berlin.


Kenkel, J.A., Sisk, T.D., Hultine K.R., Sesnie S.E., Bowker, M.A., Johnson, N.C. 2014. Cars and canyons: understanding roadsideimpacts of automobile pollution in Grand Canyon National Park. Park Science 30:52-57.

Delgado-Baquerizo, M., Maestre, F.T., Gallardo, A., Bowker, M.A. et al. (over 50 authors). 2013. Decoupling of soil nutrient cyclesas a function of aridity in global drylands. Nature 502: 672-676.

Ochoa-Hueso, R., Maestre, F.T., de los Rios, A., Valea, S., Theobald, M.R., Vivanco, M.G., Manrique, E., Bowker, M.A. 2013. Nitrogendeposition alters nitrogen cycling and reduces carbon stocks in semiaridMediterranean ecosystems. Environmental Pollution 79:185-193.

Bowker, M.A., Eldridge, D.J., Val, J., Soliveres, S. 2013. Hydrology in a patterned landscape is co-engineered by soil disturbinganimals and biological crusts. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 61:14-22.

Eldridge, D.J., Soliveres, S., Bowker, M.A., Val, J. 2013. Grazing moderates the positive effects of shrub encroachment on ecosystemfunctions in a semi-arid woodland. Journal of Applied Ecology 50:1028-1038.


Alvarez-Sanchez J., Johnson, N.C., Antoninka A., Chaudhary V.B., Lau, M.K., Owen, S.M., Sanchez-Gallen I., Guadarrama P., Castillo, S. 2012. Large-scale diversity patterns in spore communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Pages 29-45 In: Pagano, M. (Ed.) Mycorrhiza:occurrence in natural and restored environments. Nova Science Publishers, Hauppage, New York.

Eldridge, D.J., Maestre, F.T., Maltex-Mouro, S., Bowker, M.A. 2012. A global database of shrub encroachment effects on ecosystemstructure and functioning. Ecology 93: 2499.

Miller, M.E., Bowker, M.A., Reynolds, R., Goldstein, H. 2012. Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion – lessons from the MilfordFlat Fire. Aeolian Research 7:29-44.

Escolar, C., Maestre, F.T., Martínez, I., Bowker, M.A. 2012. Warming reduces the growth and diversity of lichen-dominated biologicalsoil crusts in a semi-arid environment: implications for ecosystem structureand function. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 367: 3087-3099.

de Vries, F.T.,  Liiri, M., Bjørnlund, L., Bowker, M.A., Christensen, S., Setälä, H.M., Bardgett, R.D. 2012. Agricultural land use and the stability of food webs. Nature Climate Change 2:276-280.

Maestre, F.T., Quero, J.L.,  Gotelli, N.J., Ochoa, V., Delgado-Baquerizo, M., García-Gómez, Bowker, M.A. et al. (over 50 authors). 2012. Biodiversityenhances ecosystem multifunctionality in the world’s drylands. Science 335: 214 – 217 (rated “must read” by Faculty of 1000; see press here)

Meneses, N, Bailey, J.K.,  Allan, G.J., Bangert, R.K., Bowker, M.A., Rehill, B.J., Wimp, G.W., Lindroth, R.J., Whitham, T.G. 2012. Arthropodcommunity similarity in clonal stands of aspen: A test of the genetic similarityrule. Ecoscience 19:48-58.

Maestre, F.T., Castillo, A.P., Bowker, M.A., Ochoa-Hueso R. 2012. Species richness and composition are more important than spatialpattern and evenness as drivers of ecosystem multifunctionality. Journal of Ecology 100:317-330. (see post in Journal of Ecology blog here

Bowker, M.A., Muñoz, A., Martinez, T., Lau, M.K. 2012. Rare drought-induced mortality of


Soliveres, S., Eldridge, D.J., Maestre, F.T., Bowker, M.A., Tighe, M., Escudero, A. 2011. Microhabitat amelioration and reducedcompetition among understorey plants as drivers of plant facilitation acrossenvironmental gradients: towards a unifying framework. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 13: 247 – 258.

Wu, Z., Koch, G.W., Djikstra, P., Bowker, M.A., Hungate, B.A. 2011. Responses of ecosystem carbon cycling to climate change treatmentsalong an elevation gradient. Ecosystems 14: 1066 – 1080.

García-Palacios, P., Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Soliveres, S., Valladares, F, Papadopoulos, J., Escudero, A. 2011b. Ecosystemdevelopment in roadside grasslands: biotic control, plant–soil interactions anddispersal limitations. Ecological Applications 21:2806 – 21.

Eldridge, D.J., Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Reynolds, J.F., Roger, E., Whitford, W.G. 2011. Impacts of shrub encroachment onecosystem structure and functioning: toward a global synthesis. Ecology Letters 14: 709 - 722.

Maestre, F.T., Bowker, M.A., Cantón, Y., Castillo-Monroy, A.P., Cortina, J., Escolar, C., Escudero, A., Lázaro, R. Martínez, I. 2011. Ecology and functional roles of biological soil crusts insemi-arid ecosystems of Spain. Journal of Arid Environments 75:1282 - 1291.

Bowker, M.A., Mau, R.L., Maestre, F.T., Escolar, C., Castillo, A.P. 2011. Functional profiles reveal unique ecological roles ofvarious biological soil crust organisms. Functional Ecology 25: 787-795.

García-Palacios, P., Bowker, M.A, Chapman, S.J., Maestre, F.T., Soliveres, S., Gallardo, A., Valladares, F., Guerrero, C., Castillo-Monroy, A.P. Escudero, A. 2011. Early-successional vegetation changesafter roadside prairie restoration modify potential soil functioning bychanging microbial functional diversity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 43: 1245-1253.

Castillo-Monroy, A.P., Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Rodríguez-Echeverría, S., Martinez, I., Barraza-Zepeda, C.E., Escolar, C. 2011. Relationships between biological soil crust, bacterial diversity and abundanceand ecosystem functioning: Insights from a semi-arid Mediterranean environment. Journal of Vegetation Science 1:165-174.

Lamit, L.J., Bowker, M.A., Holeski, L.M., Wooley, S.C., Zinkgraf, M., Lindroth, R.L., Whitham, T.G., and C.A. Gehring. 2011. Genetically-based trait variation within a foundation tree species influences a dominant bark lichen. Fungal Ecology 4:103-109.


Linares, J.C., Camarero, J.J, Bowker, M.A., Ochoa, V, and Carriera, J.A. 2010. Stand-structural effects on Heterobasidion abietinum-related mortality following droughtevents in Abies pinsapo. Oecologia 164:1107-1119.

Eldridge, D.J., Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Alonso, P., Mau, R.L., Papadopoulos, J., and Escudero, A. 2010. Interactive effects ofthree ecosystem engineers on infiltration in a semi-arid mediterraneangrassland. Ecosystems 13: 499-510.

Bowker, M.A., Soliveres, S, Maestre, F.T. 2010. Competition increases with abiotic stress and regulates the diversity ofbiological soil crusts. Journal of Ecology 98: 551-560.

Maestre, F.T., Bowker, M.A., Escolar, C., Puche, M.D., Soliveres, S., Castillo, A.P., Mouro, S.P., García-Palacios, P., Martínez, I, and Escudero, A. 2010. Potential climate change impacts on competition,facilitation, and contributions to ecosystem function of Mediterranean plantand biological soil crust communities. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 365:2057-2070.

Johnson, N.C., Wilson, G.W.T., Bowker, M.A., Wilson, J., and R.M. Miller. 2010. Resource  limitation is a driver of local adaptation in mycorrhizal symbioses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107: 2093-2098.

Bowker, M.A., Maestre, F.T., Escolar, C. 2010. Biological crusts as a model system for examining the biodiversity-functionrelationship in soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 42: 405-417.

Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J. and D.W. Davidson. 2010. Microclimate and propagule availability are equally important forrehabilitation of dryland N-fixing lichens. Restoration Ecology 18: 30-33.


Owen, S., Gehring, C., Seig, C., and M.A. Bowker. 2009. Above- and belowground responses to tree thinning depend on the treatment oftree debris. Forest Ecology and Management 259: 71-80.

Maestre F.T., Bowker, M.A., Puche, M.D., Hinojosa, M.B., Martínez, I., García-Palacios, P.,
Castillo, A.P., Soliveres, S., Luzuriaga, A.L., Sánchez, A.M, Carreira, J.A., Gallardo, A.
Mediterranean grasslands. Ecology Letters 12:930-941.

Antoninka, A.J, Wolf, J.E., Bowker, M.A., Classen, A.T., and N.C. Johnson. 2008. Linking above- and belowground responses to globalchange at community and ecosystem scales. Global Change Biology 15:914-929.

Chaudhary, V.B., Bowker, M.A., O’Dell, T.E., Grace, J.B., Redman, A.E., Johnson, N.C., and M. Rillig. 2008. Untangling thebiological controls on soil stability in semi-arid shrublands. Ecological Applications 40:2309-2316.


Bowker, M.A., Koch, G.W., Belnap, J., and N.C. Johnson. 2008. Nutrient availability affects
pigment production but not growth in lichens of biologicalsoil crusts. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40: 2819-2826.

Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E., Belnap, J., Sisk, T.D., and N.C. Johnson. 2008. Prioritizing conservation effort using biological soilcrusts as indicators of dryland ecosystem functioning. Conservation Biology 22: 1533-1543.

Bowker, M.A. , Belnap, J., Chaudhary, V.B., Johnson, N.C. 2008. Revisiting classic soil erosion models in drylands: the relationshipof biological soil crusts to erosion resistance. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 40:2309-2316.

Bowker, M.A., and J. Belnap. 2008. A simple but informative classification of biological
soil crust habitat on the Colorado Plateau, USA. Journal of Vegetation Science 19: 831-840.

Bowker, M.A., Johnson, N.C., Belnap, J., and G.W. Koch. 2008. Short term measurement of change in aridland lichen cover using repeatphotography and fatty acids. Journal of Arid Environments 72: 869-878.


Rosentreter, R., Bowker, M.A., and J. Belnap. 2007. A field guide to biological soil crusts of
western U.S. drylands: common lichens and bryophytes. US Government Printing Office, Denver, Colorado.


Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., and M.E. Miller. 2006. Spatial modeling of biological soil crusts to support rangeland assessment and monitoring. Range Ecology and Management. 59: 519-529.

Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., Davidson, D.W., and H. Goldstein. 2006. Correlates of biological soil crust distribution across acontinuum of spatial scales: support for a hierarchical conceptual model. Journal of Applied Ecology 43: 152-163.

Gitlin, A.R., Stulz, C.M., Bowker, M.A., Stumpf, S., Ecton, K., Kennedy, K., Munoz, A., Bailey, J.K., and T.G. Whitham. 2006. Dominant plants as "barometers" of change during record droughts:local and landscape patterns of mortality. Conservation Biology 20: 1477-1486.


Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., Davidson, D.W., and S.L. Phillips. 2005. Evidence for micronutrient limitation of biological soilcrusts: potential to impact aridlands restoration. Ecological Applications 15: 1941-1951.


Bowker, M.A., Belnap, J., Rosentreter, R., and B.Graham. 2004. Wildfire-resistant biological soil crusts and fire-induced loss of soilstability in Palouse prairies, USA. Applied Soil Ecology 26: 41-52.


Davidson, D.W., Bowker, M.A., George, D., Phillips, S.L. and J. Belnap. 2002.

Bowker, M.A., Reed, S.C., Belnap, J., and S.L. Phillips. 2002. Temporal variation in community composition, pigmentation, and Fv/Fm ofdesert cyanobacterial crusts. Microbial Ecology 43: 13-25.


Bowker, M.A., Stark, L.R., McLetchie, D.N., and B.D. Mishler. 2000. Sex expression, skewed sex ratios,and microhabitat distributionin the dioecious desert moss Syntrichia caninervis (Pottiaceae). American Journal of Botany 87: 517-526.



Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E., Belote, R.T., and S.L. Garman. 2013. Ecological thresholds as a basis for defining management triggersfor NPS vital signs – Case studies for dryland ecosystems. USGS OFR 2013-1244.


Bowker, M.A., Miller, M.E., and R.T. Belote. 2012. Assessment of rangeland ecosystem conditions, Salt Creek Watershed and DugoutRanch, Southeastern Utah. USGS OFR 2012-1061.

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